Baltimore & Orchard Orioles

Baltimore Oriole male on ground © Kimberly King
Baltimore Oriole male © Kimberly King

Orioles are colorful, vocal members of the blackbird family. In Massachusetts they are represented by two species—the Baltimore Oriole and the Orchard Oriole.

The bold patterning of black and yellow-orange sported by male Baltimore Orioles reminded early observers of the black and gold heraldry of Lord Baltimore—hence the species' common name.

These vibrant birds may visit a backyard or park near you during the warmer months of the year.


Orchard Oriole male © Amy Powers-Smith
Orchard Oriole male © Amy Powers-Smith

Baltimore Orioles are slightly smaller than American Robins—just under 9" from bill to tail tip. Males have black heads, backs, and wings but show the characteristic bright orange below (and on) their tails.

Females and young Baltimore Orioles are typically quite a bit more drab about their head. They may show pale orange, yellow, or even simply tan below. Both sexes have strong white wing-bars on dark wings, as well as the sharp, pointed bills typical of the blackbird family.

The less-common Orchard Oriole is smaller than its more famous cousin. Instead of bright orange, male Orchard Orioles are highlighted with a deep brownish-red. 

Baltimore Oriole male eating oranges at feeder © Bonnie Bowes
Baltimore Oriole © Bonnie Bowes


Baltimore Orioles love fruit, and can sometimes be enticed to visit backyard feeders by fresh fruit or berries.

They build unique hanging nests in mature trees near parks, yards, farm fields, or other open areas—you will seldom encounter a Baltimore Oriole in the depths of the forest.

Orchard Orioles favor young woods (or orchards!) at the forest's edge, and are less commonly encountered in yards or parks.

The song of the male Baltimore Oriole is a loud caroling, somewhat reminiscent of robin's song but with harsh call notes interspersed throughout.

Like most blackbirds, orioles in our area usually fly south for the winter, but a few birds may survive the winter in Massachusetts when the weather is not too severe and fruit is available.


Baltimore Orioles are still common and widespread during the warmer months in Massachusetts, but Breeding Bird Survey numbers indicate that this species may be undergoing a quiet decline. Likewise, the numbers of winter orioles reported by the Christmas Bird Count have been declining for several years. Learn more in our Breeding Bird Atlas 2 >

By contrast, Orchard Orioles are uncommonly encountered, but they are becoming more abundant and widespread in Massachusetts. This is especially true in the eastern part of the state and the Connecticut River Valley. Learn more in our Breeding Bird Atlas 2 >