State of the Birds 2017: Citations

Black-capped chickadee © Bill Thompson, USFWS
© Bill Thompson, USFWS

Table of Contents

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Executive Summary

  1. Isbell, F., D. Craven, J. Connolly, M. Loreau, B. Schmid, C. Beierkuhnlein, T.M. Bezemer, C. Bonin, H. Bruelheide, E. de Luca, et al. 2015. Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes. Nature 526(7574): 574-577. doi: 10.1038/nature15374.
  2. Walker, B., C.S. Holling, S.R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 9(2): 5. URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art5/  

Exploring the Future: Mapping Our Breeding Birds in 2050

  1. National Audubon Society. 2014. Birds and Climate Change Report. http://climate.audubon.org. [accessed March—August 2017].
  2. eBird Basic Dataset. Version: EBD_relFeb-2016. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Feb. 2016.
  3. Distler, T., J.G. Schuetz, J. Velásquez-Tibatá, and G.M. Langham. 2015. Stacked species distribution models and macroecological models provide congruent projections of avian species richness under climate change. Journal of Biogeography. 42(5): 976-988. doi: 10.1111/jbi.12479.
  4. Hijmans, R.J., S.E. Cameron, J.L. Parra, P.G. Jones, and A. Jarvis. 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25(15): 1965–1978. doi: 10.1002/joc.1276.
  5. Langham, G.M., J.G. Schuetz, T. Distler, C.U. Soykan, and C. Wilsey. 2015. Conservation status of North American birds in the face of future climate change. PLoS ONE 10(9): e0135350. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135350.
  6. Matthews, S.N., L.R. Iverson, A.M. Prasad, and M.P. Peters. 2007-ongoing. A Climate Change Atlas for 147 Bird Species of the Eastern United States [database]. Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Delaware, Ohio. https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/atlas/bird.
  7. O’Donnell, M.S., and Ignizio, D.A., 2012, Bioclimatic predictors for supporting ecological applications in the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 691, 10 p.
  8. Schuetz, J. G., G.M. Langham, C.U. Soykan, C.B. Wilsey, T. Auer, and C.C. Sanchez. 2015. Making spatial prioritizations robust to climate change uncertainties: a case study with North American birds. Ecological Applications 25(7): 1819–1831. doi: 10.1890/14-1903.1.
  9. Sullivan, B., C. Wood, M. Iliff, and S. Kelling. eBird: A citizen-based bird observation network in the biological sciences. Biological Conservation 142: 2282–2292. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2009.05.006.
  10. Foote, J.R., D.J. Mennill, L.M. Ratcliffe, and Susan M. Smith. 2010. Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The Birds of North America (P.G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/bkcchi. doi: 10.2173/bna.39.
  11. Watling, J.L., L.A. Brandt, F.J. Mazzotti, and S.S. Romañach. 2013. Use and Interpretations of Climate Envelope Models: A Practical Guide. University of Florida. 43 pp.

What to Expect From Climate Change

  1. Behrenfeld, M., R.T. O’Malley, D.A. Siegel, C.R. McClain, J.L. Sarmiento, G.C. Feldman, A.J. Milligan, P.G. Falkowski, R.M. Letelier, and E.S. Boss. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature 444: 752–755. doi: 10.1038/nature05317.
  2. City of Boston (Mayor Martin J. Walsh). 2016. Climate Ready Boston: Final Report. Boston, MA. 339 pp.
  3. Dugger, K.M., J. Faaborg, W.J. Arendt, and K.A. Hobson. 2004. Understanding survival and abundance of overwintering warblers: Does rainfall matter? The Condor. 106: 744–760.
  4. Easterling, W., R. Kates, M. Ruth, E. Sussman, A. Whelchel, and D. Wolfe.2014. 2014 National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program. Washington, D.C., USA. URL: http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/regions/northeast.
  5. IGBP, IOC, SCOR. 2013. Ocean Acidification Summary for Policymakers—Third Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Stockholm, Sweden.
  6. IPCC. 2013. Climate Change 2013: The physical science basis. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. URL: www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1.
  7. Karmalker, A.V. and R.S. Bradley. 2017. Consequences of global warming of 1.5C and 2C for regional temperature and precipitation changes in the contiguous United States. PLoS ONE 12(1): e0168697. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168697.
  8. Kunkel, K.E., L.E. Stevens, S.E. Stevens, L. Sun, E. Janssen, D. Wuebbles, C.E. Konrad II, C.M. Fuhrman, B.D. Keim, M.C. Kruk, et al. 2013. Regional Climate Trends and Scenarios for the U.S. National Climate Assessment: Part 1. Climate of the Northeast U.S. NOAA Technical Report NESDIS: 142-1. Washington, D.C.  URL: https://www.nesdis.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/asset/document/NOAA_NESDIS_Tech_Report_142-1-Climate_of_the_Northeast_US.pdf.
  9. Mosher, D. 2015. A bizarre property of water is flooding coastal cities like New Orleans. Business Insider. URL:http://www.businessinsider.com/bizarre-property-of-water-is-flooding-coastal-cities-like-new-orleans-2015-6.
  10. NASA. 2017. Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet, Effects. URL: https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/ Accessed March 2017.
  11. NOAA. 2016. Extended reconstructed sea surface temperature (ERSST.v4). National Centers for Environmental Information. URL: www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/marineocean-data/extended-reconstructed-sea-surface-temperature-ersst. [Accessed March 2016].
  12. NOAA's Gridded Climate Divisional Dataset (CLIMDIV). NOAA National Climatic Data Center. [Accessed May 2016].
  13. Oswald, S.A. and J.M. Arnold. 2012. Direct impacts of climatic warming on heat stress in endothermic species: seabirds as bioindicators of changing thermoregulatory constraints. Integrative Zoology 7(2): 121–36.
  14. Pershing, A.J., M.A. Alexander, C.M. Hernandez, L.A. Kerr, A. Le Bris, K.E. Mills, J.A. Nye, N.R. Record, H.A. Scannell, J.D. Scott, et al. 2015. Slow adaptation in the face of rapid warming leads to collapse of the Gulf of Maine cod fishery. Science 350(6262): 809–812. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9819.
  15. Veit, R.R. and W.A. Montevecchi. 2006. The influences of global climate change on marine birds. Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(Supplement): 165–168.
  16. Visser, M.E. and C. Both. 2005. Shifts in phenology due to global climate change: the need for a yardstick. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 272(1581): 2561–2569. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2005.3356.
  17. Walther, G.R., E. Post, P. Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T.J.C. Beebee, Jean-Marc Fromentin, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and F. Bairlein. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature416: 389–395. doi: 10.1038/416389a.

The Coast

  1. Fitzgerald, D. (2002, May 30). Personal communication.
  2. Oldale, R.N. and S. Dinwoody. 1999. Coastal erosion on Cape Cod—some questions and answers. Cape Naturalist, the Journal of the Cape Cod Museum of Natural History 25: 70–76.
  3. Weston, N.B. 2014. Declining sediments and rising seas: an unfortunate convergence for tidal wetlands. Estuaries and Coasts 37(1): 1–23.
  4. Seavey, J.R., B. Gilmer, and K. McGarigal. 2011. Effect of sea-level rise on piping plover (Charadrius melodus) breeding habitat. Biological Conservation144: 393–401.
  5. Craik, S. R., A.R. Hanson, R.D. Titman, M.L. Mahoney, and É. Tremblay.  2015. Potential impacts of storm surges and sea-level rise on nesting habitat of Red-breasted Mergansers (Mergus serrator) on Barrier Islands in New Brunswick, Canada. Waterbirds 38(1): 77–85. doi:  10.1675/063.038.0110.
  6. Hammar-Klose, E.S., E.A. Pendleton, E.R. Thieler, and S.J. Williams. 2002. Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Cape Cod National Seashore to Sea-Level Rise, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-233. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-233/.  
  7. Oldale, R. N. 1981. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts: U.S. Geological Survey Popular Publication, 23 p.
  8. Rodenhouse, N.L., S.N. Matthews, K.P. McFarland, J.D. Lambert, L.R. Iverson, A. Prasad, T.S. Stillett, and R.T. Holmes. 2008. Potential effects of climate change on birds of the Northeast. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13: 487–516.
  9. Scavia, D., J.C. Field, D.F. Boesch, R.W. Buddemeier, V. Burkett, D.R. Cayan, M. Fogarty, M.A. Harwell, R.W. Howarth, and C. Mason. 2002. Estuaries 25: 149–164.
  10. Thieler E. R. and E. S. Hammar-Klose. 1999. Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: Preliminary Results for the U.S. Atlantic Coast U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 99–593.
  11. Van de Pol, M.B.J., B.J. Ens, D. Heg, L. Brouwer, J. Krol, M. Maier, K.M. Exo, K. Oosterbeek, T. Lok, C.M. Eising, and K. Koffijberg. 2010. Do changes in the frequency, magnitude and timing of extreme climatic events threaten the population viability of coastal birds? Journal of Applied Ecology 47: 720–730. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01842.

The Salt Marsh

  1. Collie, J., A.D. Wood, and H.P. Jeffries. 2008. Long-term shifts in the species composition of a coastal fish community. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 65: 1352–1365. doi: 10.1139/F08-048.
  2. Correll, M.D., W.A. Wiest, T.P. Hodgman, W.G. Shriver, C.S. Elphick, B.J. McGill, K O’brien, and B.J. Olson. 2016. Conservation Biology 31(1): 172–182.
  3. Field, C.R., C. Gjerdrum, and C.S. Elphick. 2016. Forest resistance to sea-level rise prevents landward migration of tidal marsh. Biological Conservation 201:363–369. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.035.
  4. Elphick, C.S., S. Meiman, and M.A. Rubega. 2015. Tidal-flow restoration provides little nesting habitat for a globally vulnerable saltmarsh bird. Restoration Ecology 23: 439–446. doi: 10.1111/rec.12194.
  5. Hunter, E.A., N.P. Nibbelink, and R.J. Cooper. 2016. Divergent forecasts for two salt marsh specialists in response to sea level rise. Animal Conservation 20(1): 20–28. doi: 10.1111/acv.12280.
  6. Johnson, D.S. 2014. Fiddler on the roof: a northern range extension for the marsh fiddler crab Uca pugnax. Journal of Crustacean Biology. 34(5): 671–673. doi: 10.1163/1937240X-00002268.
  7. Johnson, D.S. 2015. The savory swimmer swims north: a northern range extension of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 35(1): 105–110. doi: 10.1163/1937240X-00002293.
  8. Kirwan, M.L., G.R. Guntenspergen, A. D’Alpaos, J.T. Morris, S.M. Mudd, S. Temmerman. 2010. Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level. Geophysical Research Letters 37(23). doi: 10.1029/2010GL045489.
  9. Watson, E.B., K.B. Raposa, J.C. Carey, C. Wigand, and R.S. Warren. 2016. Anthropocene survival of southern New England’s salt marshes. Estuaries and Coasts 40(3): 617–625.
  10. Wiest, W.A., M.D. Correll, B.J. Olsen, C.S. Elphick, T.P. Hodgman, D.R. Curson and W.G. Shriver. 2016. Population estimates for tidal marsh birds of high conservation concern in the northeastern USA from a design-based survey. The Condor 118(2): 274–288. doi: 10.1650/CONDOR-15-30.1.

Seabirds in a Warming World

  1. “Gulf of Maine, meet Gulf of Mexico: Razorbills (and others) invade Florida and the Gulf of Mexico”. Cornell Lab of Ornithology BirdCast. Dec. 20, 2012. http://birdcast.info/forecast/razorbills-invade-florida/.
  2. Bever, F. 2016. It’s been a tough year for puffins on Machias Seal Island. Maine public. Retrieved from http://mainepublic.org/post/its-been-tough-year-puffins-machias-seal-island.
  3. Friedland, K.D., N.R. Record, R.G. Asch, T. Kristiansen, V.S. Saba, K.F. Drinkwater, S. Henson, R.T. Leaf, R.E. Morse, D.G. Johns, et al. 2016. Seasonal phytoplankton blooms in the North Atlantic linked to the overwintering strategies of copepods. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 4: 99. doi: 10.12952/journal.elementa.000099
  4. Friedland, K.D., R.T. Leaf, J. Kane, D. Tommasi, R.G. Asch, N. Rebuck, R. Ji, S.I. Large, C. Stock, and V.S. Saba. 2015. Spring bloom dynamics and zooplankton biomass response on the US Northeast Continental Shelf. Continental Shelf Research 102: 47–61. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2015.04.005.
  5. Goyert, H.F., L.L. Manne, and R. Veit. 2014. Facilitative interactions among the pelagic community of temperate migratory terns, tunas, and dolphins. Oikos 123: 1400–1408. doi: 10.1111/oik.00814.
  6. Gaston, A.J. and K. Woo. 2008. Razorbills (Alca torda) follow subarctic prey into the Canadian Arctic: colonization results from climate change. Auk 125: 939–942. doi: 10.1525/auk.2008.07195.
  7. Hall, C.S., S.W. Kress, and C.R. Griffin.2000. Composition, spatial and temporal variation of Common and Arctic Tern diets in the Gulf of Maine. Waterbirds 23 (3): 430–439. doi: 10.2307/1522180.
  8. Hunter-Cevera, K.R., M.G. Neubert, R. J. Olsen, R.J. Solow, A. Shalapyonok, and H.M. Sosik.2016. Physiological  and ecological drivers of early spring blooms of a coastal phytoplankter. Science 354(6310): 326–329.
  9. Iliff, M. et al. 2012. Razorbills invade Florida. http://ebird.org/content/ebird/news/razorbills-invade-florida/
  10. Kraus, S.D. & Rolland, R.M. (eds.). The urban whale: north Atlantic right whales at the crossroads. 2007. Journal of Mammalogy 89(5): 1328. doi: 10.1644/08-MAMM-R-133.1.
  11. Kress, S.W., P. Shannon, and C. O’Neal. 2016. Recent changes in the diet and survival of Atlantic puffin chicks in the face of climate change and commercial fishing in midcoast Maine, USA. Facets, 1, 1, 27–43. doi: 10.1139/facets-2015-0009.
  12. Kress, S.W. & C.S. Hall. 2004. Tern Management Handbook: Coastal Northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada. National Audubon Society. Ithaca, NY.
  13. Kristiansen, T., K.F. Drinkwater, R. Gregory Lough, and S. Sundby. 2011. Recruitment Variability in North Atlantic Cod and match-mismatch dynamics. PLoS ONE6(3): e17456. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017456.
  14. Mills, K.E., A. J. Pershing, C.J. Brown, Y. Chen, F. Chiang, D.S. Holland, S. Lehuta, J.A. Nye, J.C. Sun, A.C. Thomas, and R.A. Wahle. 2013. Fisheries management in a changing climate: lessons from the 2012 ocean heat wave in the Northwest Atlantic. Oceanography26(2): 191–195.
  15. Nisbet, I.C.T., R.R. Veit, S.A. Auer, and T.P. White. 2013. Marine Birds of the Eastern United States and the Bay of Fundy. Nuttall Ornithological Club. 188 p.
  16. Nye, J.A., J.S. Link, J.A. Hare, and W.J. Overholtz. 2009. Changing spatial distribution of fish stocks in relation to climate and population size on the Northeast United States continental shelf. Marine Ecology Progress Series 393: 111–129.
  17. Tarrant, A.M., M.F. Baumgartner, T. Verslycke, and C.L. Johnson.2008. Differential gene expression in diapausing and active Calanus finmarchicus (Copepoda). Marine Ecology Progress Series 355: 193–207.
  18. Veit, R.R. and W.A. Montevechhi. 2006. The influences of global climate change on marine birds. Acta Zoologica Sinica 52: 165–168.
  19. Walther, G.R., E. Post, P. Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T.J.C. Beebee, J-M Fromentin, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and F. Bairlein. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416: 389–395. doi: 10.1038/416389a.
  20. Winder, M. and J.E. Cloern. 2010. The annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 365: 3215–3226. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0125.

The Forest

  1. Askins, R. 2001. Sustaining biological diversity in early successional communities: the challenge of managing unpopular habitats. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29: 407–412.
  2. Auer, S.K. and D.I. King.  2014. Ecological and life-history traits explain recent boundary shifts in elevation and latitude of wester North American songbirds. Global Ecology and Biogeography 23(8): 867–875. doi: 10.1111/geb.12174.
  3. Bateman, B.L., A.M. Pidgeon, V.C. Radeloff, J. VanDerWal, W.E. Thogmartin, S. J. Vavrus, and P.J. Heglund. 2015. Global Change Biology 22(3): 1130–1144. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13154.
  4. Bellassen, V. and S. Luyssaert. 2014. Carbon sequestration: managing forests in uncertain times. Nature 506: 153–155. doi: 10.1038/506153a.
  5. Berlik, M.M., D.B. Kittredge, and D.R. Foster.2002. The illusion of preservation: a global environmental argument for the local production of natural resources. Journal of Biogeography 29(10/11): 1557–1568. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00768.
  6. Birdsey, R., K. Pregitzer, and A. Lucier. 2006. Forest carbon management in the United States. Journal of Environmental Quality 35: 1461–1469. doi: 10.2134/jeq2005.0162.
  7. Both, C., M. Van Asch, R.G. Bijlsma, A.B. Van Den Burg, and M.E. Visser. 2008. Climate change and unequal phenological changes across four trophic levels: constraints or adaptations? Journal of Animal Ecology 78(1): 73–83.
  8. Both, C., S. Bouwhuis, C.M. Lessells, and M.E. Visser. 2006. Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird. Nature441: 81–83. doi: 10.1038/nature04539.
  9. Both, C. and M.E. Visser. 2001. Adjustment to climate change is constrained by arrival date in long-distance migrant bird. Nature411: 296–298.
  10. Brennan, L.A. et al. 2014. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). The Birds of North America (P.G. Rodewald, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from The Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/norbob.
  11. Buse, A., S.J. Dury, R.J.W. Woodburn, C.M. Perrins, J.E.G. Good. 1999. Effects of elevated temperature on multi-species interactions: the case of Pedunculate Oak, Winter Moth and Tits. Functional Ecology 13(1):74–82. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2435.1999.00010.x.
  12. Butler, CJ.  2003. The disproportionate effect of global warming on the arrival dates of short-distance migratory birds in North America. Ibis 145(3): 484–495. doi: 10.1046/j.1474-919X.2003.00193.x.
  13. Crick, H.Q.P. 2004. The impact of climate change on birds. Ibis 146: 48–56. doi: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.2004.00327.x.
  14. DeGraaf, R.M., J.B. Hestbeck, and M. Yamasaki. 1998. Associations between breeding bird abundance and stand structure in the White Mountains, New Hampshire and Maine, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 103: 217–233. doi:
  15. DeLuca, W.V. and D.I. King. 2017. Montane birds shift downslope despite recent warming in the northern Appalachian Mountains. Journal of Ornithology 158(2): 493–505.
  16. DeLuca, W.V.  2012.  Ecology and conservation of the high elevation forest avian community in northeastern North America.  Doctoral Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
  17. Devictor, V., R. Julliard, D. Couvet, and F. Jiguet. 2008. Birds are tracking climate warming, but not fast enough. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275(1652): 2743–2748. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.0878.
  18. Dunn, P.O. and D.W. Winkler. 2010.  Effects of climate change on time of breeding and reproductive success in birds.  p. 113–128 in Effects of Climate Change on Birds.
  19. Elphick et al. (eds.). 2001.  The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior.  Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. 608 p.
  20. Evans, A.M. and R. Perschel. 2009. A review of forestry mitigation and adaptation strategies in the Northeast U.S. Climate Change 96(1): 167–183.
  21. Gordo, O. 2007. Why are bird migration dates shifting? A review of weather and climate effects on avian migratory phenology. Climate Research 35: 37–58. doi: 10.3354/cr00713.
  22. Harris, J.A., R.J. Hobbs, E. Higgs, J. Aronson. 2006. Ecological restoration and global climate change. Restoration Ecology 14(2): 170–176. doi:10.1111/j.1526
  23. Hitch, A.T. and P.L. Leberg. 2007. Breeding distributions of North American bird species moving north as a result of climate change. Conservation Biology 21(2): 1523–1739. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00609.x.
  24. Horvick, T.J., B.W. Allred, D.A. McGranahan, M.W. Palmer, R.D. Elmore, and S.D. Fuhlendorf. 2016. Informing conservation by identifying range shift patterns across breeding habitats and migration strategies. Biodiversity Conservation 25(2): 345–356.
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  26. Keeton, W.S. 2006. Managing for late-successional/old-growth characteristics in northern hardwood-conifer forests. Forest Ecology and Management 235: 129–142. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.08.005.
  27. Landler, L., M.A. Jusino, J. Skelton, J.R. Walters. 2014. Global trends in woodpecker cavity entrance orientation: latitudinal and continental effects suggest regional climate influence. Acta Ornithologica49: 257–266.
  28. LaSorte, F.A., and F.R. Thompson III. 2007. Poleward shifts in winter ranges of North American birds. Ecology 88(7): 1803–1812. doi: 10.1890/06-1072.1.
  29. Lenoir, J., J. Gégout, A. Guisan, P. Vittoz, T. Wohlgemuth, N.E. Zimmerman, S. Dullinger, H. Pauli, W. Willner, and J. Svenning. 2010. Ecography 33(2): 295–303. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06279.x.
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  32. Matthews, S.N., L.R. Iverson, and A.M. Prasad. 2011. Changes in potential habitat of 147 North American breeding bird species in response to redistribution of trees and climate following predicted climate change. Ecography 34: 933–945. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2011.06803.x.
  33. Mawdsley, J.R., R. O’Malley, and D.S. Ojima. 2009. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1080–1089. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01264.x.
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  35. Millar, C.I., N.L. Stephenson, and S.L. Stephens. 2007. Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecological Applications 17(8): 2145–2151. doi: 10.1890/06-1715.1.
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  37. Nunery, J.S. and W.S. Keeton. 2010. Forest carbon storage in the northeastern United States: Net effects of harvesting frequency, post-harvest retention, and wood products. Forest Ecology and Management 259(8): 1363–1375. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.12.029.
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  39. Parmesan, C.  2007. Influences of species, latitudes and methodologies on estimates of phenological response to global warming. Global Change Biology13(9): 1860–1872. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2007.01404.x.
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